If you're interested in lenses, optics, resolution, MTF, lens aberrations and associated subjects, the best way to learn more is from a book.
The problem with recommending books for further reading is that they tend to fall into one of several categories, all of which have problems:
By now you will have noticed the book listing in the column on the left. If I had to pick one book which deals with resolution and image quality it would be the book "Image Clarity" by John B. Williams.It's written at a level that most people can understand. It deals with practical issues as well as the theory and the math is held to a minimum. Unfortunately it's out of print but there are a few used copies floating around.
A couple of older books which deal with the basics of optics, lenses, aberrations etc. on a level which doesn't need a Ph.D. are those by Conrady and Fowles. Their advantage is that they are cheap - because they were written 30 years ago. However optics are optics and not that much has changed!
"Modern Optical Engineering" by Warren J. Smith is a classic - it was written in 1966. Being a textbook aimed at scientists and engineers it's not light reading, but it's a good book which can often be found pretty cheap in used bookstores. It not too hard to find since it was widely used in college courses.
If you're looking for books which are more about photographic lenses than general optics then the two books "Optics in Photography" and "A History of the Photographic Lens" by Rudolf Kingslake may be useful. Rudolf Kingslake was Director of Optical Design at Kodak for many years.
The links below will take you to Amazon, and many of these books are available from them new (or from their associates, new or used). In fact many of the books are ONLY available used!